Aquaculture production in Cambodia has grown by an average 20% per year over the past decade according to official statistics, increasing from less than 50,000 metric tons in 2008 to 207,443 metric tons in 2017. The National Strategic Plan for Aquaculture Development in Cambodia (NSPAD) (2016 to 2030) outlines key priorities and future investment requirements in aquaculture. However, knowledge about the current status of the sector is lacking. To address these knowledge gaps, in 2017 the Department of Aquaculture Development of the Cambodian Fisheries Administration and WorldFish undertook a rapid assessment of the aquaculture sector. This brief presents the findings of the assessment, from fingerling production to the operations of wholesalers and retailers, as a contribution to efforts to strengthen the development of a sustainable aquaculture sector in Cambodia.