Tilapias (Family Cichlidae) are the second most important group of aquaculture species in the world. They have been the subject of much research on sex determination due to problems caused by early maturation in culture and their complex sex-determining systems. Different sex-determining loci (linkage group 1, 20 and 23) have been detected in various tilapia stocks. The ‘genetically improved farmed tilapia’ (GIFT) stock, founded from multiple Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) populations, with some likely to have been introgressed with O. mossambicus, is a key resource for tilapia aquaculture. The sex-determining mechanism in the GIFT stock was unknown, but potentially complicated due to its multiple origins.