In Bangladesh, up to 45% of the population was living in urban areas as of 2010, and the estimated prevalence of urban poverty was approximately 20%. Yet, very little is known about the food security and diets of the urban poor. To date, studies of the determinants of food security and diets in Bangladesh have focused on factors related to food systems and price shocks. Women's empowerment is one potential determinant of dietary intake that remains under-studied. In the context of global nutrition programs, interventions that promote women's empowerment are considered nutrition-sensitive. However, little research exists to quantify the pathways through which different domains of women's empowerment may influence diet at the household or individual (woman) level. The objective of our research was to advance knowledge on this question by examining associations between components of women's empowerment, food security, and diets, at the household and individual (woman) level in poor neighborhoods of Dhaka City Corporation.